‘The Four Evangelists’ Peter Paul Rubens (1577-1640)

Course Description

As Christians we believe that throughout the ages God has spoken to humanity through his written Word in the Scriptures. Although this is true and acknowledged by many, what is as equally true, although not as equally acknowledged, is that the proper place for the Scriptures is the divinely instituted liturgy. In its 1993 document, The Interpretation of the Bible in the Church, the Pontifical Biblical Commission stated: “It is above all through the liturgy that Christians come into contact with scripture…Christ is then present in his word, because it is he himself who speaks when sacred scripture is read in the Church. Written text becomes living word.”

In the liturgy the Scriptures find their proper place and come alive! Read, or better still, proclaimed, in the Heart of the Church—through her liturgy—the Scriptures are about liturgy and for the liturgy. For this reason the Catholic Church has continuously claimed that the Bible arose from the worshipping community of the Church and is therefore properly interpreted by the Church in the context of the lived experience of this worshipping community.

In this course you will see how the Church’s liturgical rites and yearly feasts are intended not only as an unfailing means of bestowing sacramental grace on the faithful, but also for instructing the faithful in the mysteries of Salvation History contained in Scripture. You will see how the Church’s liturgical rites not only teach these mysteries to the faithful, but by virtue of Christ’s divine power flowing through them, these rites make God’s saving mysteries present once again.

It is hoped that through this course you will come to a deeper appreciation and love, not only for sacred Scripture, but also for the Church’s liturgy as the work of Jesus Christ, in the Holy Spirit, living among his people.

Course Objectives

  1. To understand how the books of the Bible were written for the liturgy and how the liturgy is the Bible’s proper place for proclamation.
  2. To understand and become familiar with particular liturgical and scriptural terms such as: Proclamation, Anamnesis, Parousia, Mystagogy, Oikonomia and Theologia.
  3. To learn how the Scriptures were intended for solemn proclamation in the Church’s liturgy, and how the Scriptures themselves are super-saturated with liturgical content.
  4. To discover a greater love and appreciation for the Scriptures and the Church’s liturgical celebrations.
  5. To come to know and love Jesus more deeply, and to grasp more fully the mysteries of Salvation History made present in the Church’s liturgy, given her by Jesus.

Course Duration

6 Weeks: 12 Hours (i.e., two hours, one night a week).

Recommended Reading

Texts Recommended for Purchase by Course Participants:

Aquilina, Mike. The Mass of the Early Christians. Huntington, IN: Our Sunday Visitor, 2001.

Cavalletti, Sofia. Living Liturgy: Elementary Reflections. Translated by Patricia A. Coulter and Julie Coulter-English. Chicago: Catechesis of the Good Shepherd Publications, 1998.

Hahn, Scott W. Consuming the Word: The New Testament and The Eucharist in the Early Church. New York: Image Books, 2013.

_________. Letter & Spirit: From Written Text to Living Word in the Liturgy. Great Britain: Darton, Longman and Todd Ltd., 2006.

_________. The Lamb’s Supper: The Mass as Heaven on Earth. New York: Doubleday, 1999.

Pitre, Brant. Jesus and the Jewish Roots of the Eucharist: Unlocking the Secrets of the Last Supper. New York, Doubleday, 2011.

Popular Level Reading:

Aquilina, Mike. Signs and Mysteries: Revealing Ancient Christian Symbols. Huntington, IN: Our Sunday Visitor, 2008.

Daley, Robert J. Sacrifice Unveiled: The True Meaning of Christian Sacrifice. London: T & T Clark, 2009.

Daniélou, Jean. The Bible and the Liturgy. Indiana: University of Notre Dame Press, 1956.

Fitzmyer, Joseph A. Scripture, the Soul of Theology. New York: Paulist Press, 1994.

Hahn, Scott W. Kingdom of God as Liturgical Empire: A Theological Commentary on 1-2 Chronicles. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Academic, 2012.

Hahn, Scott W., and Mike Aquilina. Living the Mysteries: A Guide for Unfinished Christians. Huntington, IN: Our Sunday Visitor, 2003.

Hemming, Laurence Paul. Worship as Revelation: The Past, Present and Future of Catholic Liturgy. London: Burns and Oats, 2008.

Kilpatrick, G.D. The Eucharist in Bible and Liturgy. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1983.

Pope Benedict XVI. Heart of the Christian Life: Thoughts on Holy Mass. San Francisco: Ignatius Press, 2010.

Pope Pius XII. Mediator Dei: Encyclical Letter on the Sacred Liturgy. Mahwah, NJ: Paulist Press, 1948.

Rausch, Thomas P. Eschatology, Liturgy, and Christology: Toward Recovering an Eschatological Imagination. Collegeville, MI: Liturgical Press, 2012.

Sanders, James A. From Sacred Story to Sacred Text: Canon as Paradigm. Philadelphia: Fortress, 1987.

Werner, Eric. The Sacred Bridge: Liturgical Parallels in Synagogue and Early Church. New York: Schocken Books, 1970.

Thematic Works for this Course:

Achtemeier, Paul J. Inspiration and Authority: Nature and Function of Christian Scripture. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Baker Academic, 1999.

Barker, Margaret. The Great High Priest: The Temple Roots of Christian Liturgy. New York: T & T Clark, 2003.

Béchard, Dean P. ed. and trans. The Scripture Documents: An Anthology of Official Catholic Teachings. Collegeville, MI: The Liturgical Press, 2002.

Bruce, F.F. The New Testament Documents: Are they Reliable? Grand Rapids, MI: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., 1981.

Catholic Church. Catechism of the Catholic Church. Homebush: St Pauls, 1994.

_________. Dogmatic Constitution on the Sacred Liturgy: Sacrosanctum Concilium. N.C.W.C. Translation. Boston: St. Paul Books and Media, 1963.

_________. The Historicity of the Gospels: Instruction of the Pontifical Biblical Commission. Boston: Pauline Books and Media, 1964.

_________. The Interpretation of the Bible in the Church: Address of His Holiness John Paul II and Document of the Pontifical Biblical Commission. Boston: St Paul Books and Media, 1993.

_________. Vatican Council II: The Conciliar and Post Conciliar Documents, New Revised Edition, vol. 1. Edited by Austin Flannery. New York: Costello Publishing Company, 1996.

Dauphinais, Michael and Matthew Levering. Holy People, Holy Land: A Theological Introduction to the Bible. Grand Rapids, MI: Brazos Press, 2005.

Farkasfalvy, Denis. Inspiration and Interpretation: A Theological Introduction to Sacred Scripture. Washington DC. The Catholic University of America Press, 2010.

Geisler, Norman L. and William C. Roach. Defending Inerrancy: Affirming the Accuracy of Scripture for a New Generation. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Baker Academic, 2011.

Hahn, Scott W. A Father Who Keeps His Promises: God’s Covenant Love in Scripture. Michigan: Servant Publications, 1998.

_________. A Pocket Guide to the Bible. Huntington, IN: Our Sunday Visitor Division, 2008.

_________. Scripture Matters: Essays on Reading the Bible from the Heart of the Church. Steubenville, Ohio: Emmaus Road, 2003.

Pope Pius XII. Mediator Dei: Encyclical Letter on the Sacred Liturgy. Mahwah, NJ: Paulist Press, 1948.

Shea, Mark P. Making Senses out of Scripture: Reading the Bible as the First Christians Did. San Diego: Basilica Press, 1999.

Sri, Edward. The Bible Compass: A Catholic’s Guide to Navigating the Scriptures. West Chester, PA: Ascension Press, 2009.

Stravinskas, Peter M.J. The Catholic Church and the Bible. San Francisco: Ignatius Press, 1996.

Vanhoozer, Kevin J. (ed.) Theological Interpretation of the New Testament: A Book-by-Book Survey. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Baker Academic, 2005, 2008.

_________. (ed.) Theological Interpretation of the Old Testament: A Book-by-Book Survey. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Baker Academic, 2005, 2008.

Scholarly Level Reading:

Atkins, Peter. Memory and Liturgy: The Place of Memory in the Composition and Practice of Liturgy. Brookfield, VT: Ashgate Publishing Company, 2004.

Aune, David, The Cultic Setting of Realized Eschatology in Early Christianity. Leiden: Brill, 1972.

Beale, Gregory K. The Temple and the Church’s Mission. Downers Grove, Illinois: InterVarsity Press, 2004.

Berger, David. Thomas Aquinas and the Liturgy. Naples, FL: Sapientia Press, 2004.

Bonneau, Normand, O.M.I. The Sunday Lectionary: Ritual Word, Pascal Shape. Collegeville, MN: The Liturgical Press, 1998.

Bradshaw, Paul F. The Search for the Origins of Christian Worship: Sources and Methods for the Study of Early Liturgy. Second edition. New York: Oxford University Press, 2002.

Breck, John. The Power of the Word in the Worshiping Church. Crestwood, NY: St. Vladimir’s Seminary Press, 1986.

Briggs, Richard S. Words in Action: Speech Act Theory and Biblical Interpretation. Edinburgh: T & T. Clark, 2001.

Buchanan, G.W. Typology and the Gospel. New York: University Press of America, 1984.

Cantalamessa, Raniero, O.F.M. Cap. Easter in the Early Church. Collegeville, MN: The Liturgical Press, 1993.

Cavalletti, Sofia. History’s Golden Thread: The History of Salvation. Oak Park, IL: Catechesis of the Good Shepherd Publications, 1999.

_________. Living Liturgy: Elementary Reflections. Oak Park, IL: Catechesis of the Good Shepherd Publications, 1998.

Corbon, Jean. The Wellspring of Worship. Translated by Matthew O’Connell. New York: Paulist Press, 1988.

Crowe, Fredrick E. Theology of the Christian Word: A Study in History. New York: Paulist Press, 1978.

Cullmann, Oscar. Early Christian Worship. London: SCM Press, 1956.

Cuming, Geoffrey, J., ed. The Liturgy of St. Mark. Rome: Pontifical Oriental Institute, 1990.

Danielou, Jean. From Shadows to Reality: Studies in the Typology of the Fathers. London: Burns and Oats, 1960.

Davidson, R.M. Typology in Scripture: A Study of Hermeneutical Typos Structures. Berrien Springs, MI: Andrews University Press, 1981.

Driscoll, Jeremy. Theology at the Eucharistic Table. Rome: Studia Anselmiana, 2003

_________. What Happens at Mass. Chicago, IL: Liturgy Training Publications, 2005.

Ellis, E.E. The Making of the New Testament Documents. Leiden: Brill, 1999.

Fisher, Eugene J., ed. The Jewish Roots of Christian Liturgy. New York: Paulist Press, 1990.

Gavin, F. The Jewish Antecedents of the Christian Sacraments. New York: Ktav Publishing House, 1969.

Glatzer, Nahum N., ed. The Passover Haggadah. New York: Schocken, 1989.

Goppelt, L. Typos: The Typological Interpretation of the Old Testament in the New. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1982.

Goulder, M.D. The Evangelists’ Calendar: A Lectionary Explanation of the Development of Scripture. London: SPCK, 1978.

Guardini, Romano. The Spirit of the Liturgy. New York: The Crossroads Publishing Company, 1998.

Herbert, A.G. The Throne of David: A Study of the Fulfillment of the Old Testament in Jesus Christ and His Church. London: Faber and Faber, 1942.

Jeremias, Joachim. The Eucharistic Words of Jesus. London: SCM, 1966.

Jungmann, Josef. The Early Liturgy. Notre Dame, IN: Notre Dame University Press, 1959.

Kodell, John. The Eucharist in the New Testament. Collegeville, MN: The Liturgical Press, 1991.

Koenig, John. God’s Word at Mass. New York: Hawthorn, 1967.

LaVerdiere, Eugene. The Eucharist in the New Testament and the Early Church. Collegeville, MN: The Liturgical Press, 1996.

Levenson, Jon D. Sinai & Zion: An Entry into the Jewish Bible. New York: Winston Press, 1985.

Little, Edmund. Echoes of the Old Testament in the Wine of Cana in Galilee (John 2:1-11) and the Multiplication of the Loaves and Fish (John 6:1-15): Towards an Appreciation. Paris: J. Gabalda, 1998.

Madsen, Truman G. ed. The Temple in Antiquity: Ancient Records and Modern Perspectives. Provo, UT: Brigham Young University, 1984.

Mazza, Enrcio. Mystagogy: A Theology of Liturgy in the Patristic Age. New York: Puelbo, 1989.

_________. The Celebration of the Eucharist: The Origin of the Rite and the Development of its Interpretation. Collegeville, MN: Puelbo, 1985.

_________. The Origins of the Eucharistic Prayer. Collegeville, MN: Puelbo, 1995.

Olst, Evert H. van. The Bible and the Liturgy. Michigan, Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1991.

Oesterley, William O. E. The Jewish Background of the Christian Liturgy. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1925.

Parry, Donald W., ed. Temples in the Ancient World: Ritual and Symbolism. Salt Lake City: Desert Book Company, 1994.

Parry, Donald W., and Stephen D. Ricks, eds. The Temple in Time and Eternity. Provo, UT: Brigham Young University, 1999.

Power, David Noel. “The Word of the Lord”: Liturgy’s Use of Scripture. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis, 2001.

Powery, Emerson B. Jesus Reads Scripture: The Function of Jesus’ Use of Scripture in the Synoptic Gospels. Leiden: Brill, 2003.

Ratzinger, Joseph. A New Song for the Lord: Faith in Christ and Liturgy Today. Translated by Martha M. Matesich. New York: Crossroad, 1996.

_________. Feasts of Faith: Approaches to a Theology of the Liturgy. Translated by Graham Harrison. San Francisco: Ignatius Press, 1986.

_________. God is Near Us: The Eucharist, the Heart of Life. Translated by Henry Taylor. San Francisco: Ignatius Press, 2003.

_________. Introduction to Christianity. Translated by J.R. Foster. San Francisco: Ignatius Press, 2004.

_________. The Spirit of the Liturgy. San Francisco: Ignatius Press, 2000.

Sanders, James A. From Sacred Story to Sacred Text. Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1987.

Satterlee, Craig Alan. Ambrose of Milan’s Method of Mystagogical Preaching. Collegeville, MN: The Liturgical Press, 2002.

Skarsaune, Oskar. In the Shadow of the Temple: Jewish Influences on Early Christianity. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 2002.

Strasbourg Congress. The Liturgy of the Word of God. Collegeville, MN: The Liturgical Press, 1959.

Stravinskas, Peter. The Bible and the Mass. Mount Pocono, PA: Newman House Press, 2000.

Thornton, John F. and Susan B. Varenne (ed.). The Essential Pope Benedict XVI: His Central Writings and Speeches. New York: HarperCollins Publishers, 2007.

Scholarly Journal Articles:

Cavalletti, Sofia. “Memorial and Typology in Jewish and Christian Liturgy.” Letter & Spirit 1 (2005): 69-86.

Daniélou, Jean. “The Sacraments and the History of Salvation.” Letter & Spirit 2 (2006): 203-216.

Driscoll, Jeremy. “The Word of God in the Liturgy of the New Covenant.” Letter & Spirit 1 (2005): 87-100.

Fagerberg, David W. “Toward a New Understanding of Sacrifice in Christian Worship.” Letter & Spirit 3 (2007): 95-112.

Hahn, Scott W. “Worship in the Word: Toward a Liturgical Hermeneutic.” Letter & Spirit 1 (2005): 101-136.

LaVerdiere, Eugene. “Loaves and Fish, A Eucharistic Banquet.” Bible Today, vol. 40, no. 1 (2002): 229-235.

Phelan, Owen M. “Patristic Exegesis and the Liturgy: Medieval Ressourcement and the Development of Baptism.” Letter & Spirit 7 (2011): 133-156.

Swetnam, James. “A Liturgical Approach to Hebrews 13.” Letter & Spirit 2 (2006): 159-174.

Wood, Christine E. “Anamnesis and Allegory in Ambrose’s De sacramentis and De mysteriis.” Letter & Spirit 7 (2011): 51-66.